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Diabetes refers to a group of diseases of the metabolic type, in which the person has an elevated level of blood glucose (sugar). This can occur either because of a lack of cell response to insulin, or due to an insufficient production of insulin. There are three major forms of diabetes, and they are discussed briefly on this page. This group of diseases is also known by the slightly longer name of diabetes mellitus. Please keep in mind that this does not include the insipidus form.

Type 1 diabetes

Patients with T1D have a failure in insulin production. In this type, the individual needs to have insulin injections. In the past, it was referred to as juvenile diabetes, however, this term is no longer used with much frequency. There is no one particular known cause for T1D, although it is suspected that genetics and environmental factors both are involved in the development of this condition. As with the type 2 form, some of the possible symptoms are the three Ps: polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.

Type 2 diabetes

T2D occurs due to a resistance to insulin, in which the cells do not use it as they normally would. It was previously known as the adult-onset form. There may also be somewhat of a deficiency of insulin. It is considered to be brought on by a combination of lifestyle factors and genetics. For instance, poor diet and low physical activity levels may contribute to the development of this condition. Medical conditions such as high blood pressure and obesity might also be factors. Those who have relatives with T2D also have a higher incidence of developing it themselves.

Gestational diabetes

This type takes place in women who are pregnant and had not been previously diagnosed with diabetes. When this happens, their blood glucose levels are high during pregnancy, particularly within the third and final trimester. In many cases, this gestational form does not present with many symptoms. It is commonly diagnosed when the pregnant woman goes through screening. In studies, somewhere between the range of 3 to 10 percent of pregnancies have been found to involve this condition. There are a number of risk factors that are considered for developing this condition, including its occurrence in a first-degree relative (parent, brother or sister, child). Another factor that can contribute is being overweight (including being obese).

Read more information on paresthesia, or alternatively go right to the list of some of the other possible medical reasons.