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Lyme disease

Lyme disease (LD) is a medical condition brought on by bacterial infection. The genus Borrelia is involved, and there are at least three different species of bacteria from that which can cause LD. It is tick-borne, as the bacteria is passed through the bite of an infected tick.


There are a number of different symptoms that can appear in a person with Lyme disease. One of the possibilities is paresthesia, or a sensation of tingling, numbness, or similar feelings. Early in the disease, symptoms such as fatigue, fever, and headache may appear. Another early sign of this condition is the skin rash, which is like a bulls-eye in shape, and is a characteristic feature of the illness. If treatment is delayed, inadequate, or simply does not work in clearing the infection, then other symptoms may eventually come, and may involve neurological symptoms, as well as those related to the joints and heart.


As mentioned, infection with certain species of the Borrelia genus of bacteria leads to a case of Lyme disease. Additionally, only certain ticks are viable as a means of transmission of the bacteria to humans, usually certain ones from the Ixodes genus. These are sometimes known as "hard ticks." From human to human, transmission through sexual contact is rare, but it has been noted as having occurred. Transmission during a pregnancy to the unborn baby through the placenta has not been seen.


A diagnosis of LD should be attempted by a doctor or other medical professional. A number of things can be considered during the diagnostic process, including symptoms, things that are noted physically (such as the bulls-eye rash), blood tests, and whether or not the person may have been exposed to infected ticks. In its late stage, symptoms of Lyme disease are similar to those of many other conditions, and thus it might be misdiagnosed as a disease such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, etc.


In the early stage of Lyme disease, antibiotics are normally used for treatment. However, if the disease reaches later stages, then the bacteria may have crossed the blood-brain barrier. Still, antibiotics may be used, but generally of a different type. Other treatments may be sought out for symptomatic relief.

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